Glossary Of Terms

Accessories: An item that supplements a basic structure such as a door, window, skylight panels, roof vent, cupola, weather vane, soffit, wainscot, overhang, etc.

Agricultural Building: A structure designed and constructed to house farm implements, store hay, hold grain, poultry, livestock, or other agricultural products. Ag structures are not intended to be used as a place of occupancy (i.e. High occupancy) by the general public.

Anchor Bolt: Bolt used to anchor columns (legs), and endwall columns among other items to a concrete foundation or other support method.

Anchor Bolt Plan: A plan view drawing showing the diameter, location, and projection of all anchor bolts for the components of the metal building system and may show column reactions (magnitude and direction). The maximum base plate dimensions may also be shown.

Approval Drawings: Preliminary Drawing/s that include various details (i.e. framing plans, elevations, and cross sections) designed for review and approval by the client.

Bar Joist: In structural engineering, the open web steel joist (OWSJ) is a lightweight steel truss consisting, in the standard form, of parallel chords and a triangulated web system, proportioned to span between bearing points.

Barn Door (Sliding Door): A single or double door, which opens horizontally by means of sliding on an overhead track system.

Base Angle: Trim piece generally secured to a wall or foundation used to attach the bottom of the wall paneling.

Base Plate: The plate that is attached to the bottom of the column (leg), which rests on a foundation or other support method, usually secured by anchor bolts.

Bay: The space between the truss frames.

Bearing Plate: A steel plate that is set on top of an independent support on which a beam or purlin can sit.

Bill of Materials (BOL): A list that describes each piece of material or assembly to be shipped.

Bracing: Angles, rod, or other material used in the roof and walls of a structure to transfer loads, such as wind, seismic, and offset weight loads to the foundation or other structural member.

Building: A structure forming an open, partially enclosed, or enclosed space constructed by a planned process of combining materials, components, and subsystems to meet specific conditions of use.

Building Code: Regulations established by a qualified agency describing design loads, procedures, and construction details for structures usually applying to a designated jurisdiction (city, county, state, etc.). Certain permit offices uphold these codes.

Canopy: A projecting roof system that is supported and restrained at one end only.

Chalking: When the paint finish on panels has a white powder film due to over exposure.

Cladding: The exterior metal roof and wall paneling of a Metal Building System. See also “Covering”.

Closure Strip: A strip, formed to the contour of ribbed steel panels and used to close openings created by ribbed panels joining other components, either made of resilient material or metal.

Collateral Loads: The weight of additional permanent materials required by the contract, other than the Building System, such as sprinklers, mechanical and electrical systems, partitions and ceilings.

Color Chart: A document or web page that shows the color swatches that are available for purchase.

Column: A vertical member used in a building to transfer loads from main roof beams, trusses, or rafters to the foundations.

Component: A part used in a steel building system.

Covering: The exterior metal roof and wall paneling of a Metal Building System.

Dead Load: The weight of all permanent construction, such as floor, roofing, framing, and covering members, plus any additional weight accounted for.

Dealer: Reseller of parts, components and metal buildings systems

Design Professional: Draftsman, Architect, or Engineer.

Diagonal Bracing: Most often round threaded rod, sometimes cables, or other item used in the roof and walls of a structure to transfer loads, such as wind, seismic, and offset weight loads to the foundation or other structural member for support.

Drift (Snow loading): The ability for snow to blow and in turn buildup in place greater than the original amount of snow that fell.

Eave Height: The height at the top of the sidewall where the roof and the wall intersect. The vertical dimension generally measure from the finished floor to the top of the eave plate.

End Bay: The bays adjacent to the end walls of a building. Usually the distance from the end wall to the first interior mainframe measured normal to the end wall.

End Frame: A frame located at the end wall of a building.

End Post: Vertical member located at the end wall of a building that supports and provides attachment for the girts.

End Wall: An exterior wall that is at the beginning point of the building.

End Wall Column: A vertical member located at the end wall of a building that supports the girts.

Installation: The assembly of prefabricated metal building system components to form a completed steel structure.

Erector: A person or party who assembles (erects) a metal building kit.

Expansion Joint: An intentional break or space in construction to allow for thermal expansion and contraction of the materials used in the structure.

Fabrication: The method performed to convert raw materials into finished prefabricated steel building system. Processes generally include cutting, punching, welding, cleaning, and priming and/or painting.

Facade: An architectural element, partially or fully covering a wall or roof section, often concealing the eave and/or peak of the building.

Fading: Refers to the paint finish on panels loosing their color (luster).

Fascia: A decorative trim panel attaching along the face of a wall.

Field: Used to describe the job-site, building site, or construction site.

Flange: The projecting edge of a structural member.

Flashing: The material used to “trim” or cover the juncture of two pieces of material – usually metal in the case of a steel cladded building.

Floor Joist: A joist is a horizontal structural member used in framing to span an open space, often between beams that subsequently transfer loads to vertical members. When incorporated into a floor framing system, joists serve to provide stiffness to the subfloor sheathing, allowing it to function as a horizontal diaphragm. Joists are often doubled or tripled, placed side by side, where conditions warrant, such as where wall partitions require support.

Flush Girts: In wall framing where the outside of the girts and columns are flush.

Footing: A pad, usually concrete, located under a column, legs, wall, or other structural member, that is used to support and distribute the loads from that member into the surrounding soil.

Foundation: The support of a building or other structure – most often made from concrete.

Framed Opening: Framing members which make up and intended opening. Generally designed to hold the weight of a door, window, or other accessory.

Gable: The triangular portion of the end wall from the level of the eave to the ridge of the roof.

Gable Roof: A roof line consisting of two sloping roof sections that form a “gable” at each end.

Galvanized: Steel coated with zinc. Used for its corrosion resistance.

Girder: A main horizontal or near horizontal structural member that supports vertical loads.

Girt: A horizontal structural member that is attached to sidewall or end wall columns to connect the columns and roof sections and also will provide support and attachment points for the roof and wall paneling.

Grade: Term used when referring to the ground elevation around a building.

Grade Beam: A concrete beam around the perimeter of a building.

Ground Snow Load: The weight of snow on the ground for a specified time exclusive of drifts or moving snow.

Gutter: A metal member attached at the eave, valley, or parapet designed to carry water from the roof to downspouts or alternative drain.

Haunch: The section of a column or rafter (usually at the intersection of the column and roof rafter) where 2 points meet.

Header: Horizontal framing member located at the top of a framed opening.

High Wind Load: Wind description that is used to discuss above average wind speed requirement. Usually referring to “Hurricane speed” wind requirements. These loads are typically above 115mph and go up to 200+mph.

Hip Roof: A roof that is formed by sloping planes from 1 or up to all four sides. These are recognized by the look of the peak “tipping” inwards toward the middle of the building structure.

Insulation: Any material used in building construction to reduce heat transfer.

Jamb: The vertical framing members located at the sides of an opening.

Jig: A tool used to hold material in a specified position during fabrication. Jigs ensure accuracy and consistency in the manufacturing process.

Joist: A light beam for supporting a floor or roof.

Knee Brace: A diagonal member at a column and rafter intersection designed to resist horizontal loads.

Lean-To: A structure having only one slope and depending upon another structure for partial support.

Length: The dimension of the building measured perpendicular to the main framing from gable end to gable end.

Light Transmitting Panel: Panel used to admit light. Sky light, and also called translucent panels.

Liner Panel: A light gauge metal panel attached to the inside of the girts or interior wall.

Live Load: Load calculation that are produced A) by a person, equipment, and materials, and B) during the life of the structure by movable items. Does not include wind, snow, seismic, or dead loads.

Main Frame: Rafters and columns that support the secondary framing members and of which that carry the loads to the foundation.

Manufacturer: A team that builds and fabricates a steel building kit.

Metal Building: A structure comprised of metal parts and components that once assembled creates a finished structure.

Mezzanine: A floor between base floor and ceiling occupying a full or partial area of the floor space.

Monolithic Pour: A method of placing concrete grade beam and floor slab together to form the building foundation without forming and placing each separately.

Multi-Gable Roof: Building/s consisting of more than one gable.

Open Web Steel Joist: In structural engineering, the open web steel joist (OWSJ) is a lightweight steel truss consisting, in the standard form, of parallel chords and a triangulated web system, proportioned to span between bearing points. Strong by design and built similar to bridge trusses.

Overhead Doors (Sectional Doors): Doors built in horizontally hinged sections. They have springs, tracks, counter balance, and other hardware, which slide the sections into an “over head” position above the door opening.

Panels: Used to describe the sections of steel roofing and/or siding that provide the outer shell of a building. Steel panels overlap to seal up and provide a weather tight option.

Parapet: A portion of the vertical wall of a building that extends above the roofline.

Peak: The highest point of a gable roof. Runs horizontally from the front gable end to the rear gable end of the building.

Peak Plate: A sign attached to the peak of the building at the end wall to cover the peak. Often displays a logo of the building manufacturer.

Personnel Doors: Doors used by people for access and exit from a building (i.e. Walk door, service door, man door, access door).

Pick Point: The area of panel bundles where the bundle is to be lifted for staging and during assembly of the components.

Pier: A concrete structure designed to transfer vertical load from the base of a column to the footing and support the system.

Pitch: Used to describe the steepness of the roof angle.

Pole Barn: A building made from wood framing and where wood posts are the vertical support. Wood posts are often buried in the ground or can be set in or on a concrete pier or foundation. Clad in steel roofing and siding traditionally.

Portal Brace: A component built it is generally used to resist longitudinal loads where other bracing methods are not permitted or fit the design.

Post: Vertical column (leg) used to support and carry loads down to the foundation.

Post and Beam: A structural system consisting of a series of rafters beams supported by columns. Often used as the end frame of a building.

Purlin: A horizontal structural member that supports roof covering and carries loads to the framing members.

Rafter: The main beam supporting the roof system.

Rake Trim: A flashing designed to cover the opening between the roof and end wall panels.

Retrofit: The placing of new materials into an existing item.

Rib: The longitudinal raised section of the profile of a panel. These Ribs provide strength to the panel.

Ribbed Panel: A panel, which has ribs generally alongside flat sections. These ribs help to add strength into the panel and adds a design element to the look of the panel.

Ridge: The peak line of a roof running parallel with the building length.

Ridge Cap: A metal trim piece used to cover the peak of the building where the opposing roof sections meet at the top.

Rigid Frame: A structural frame consisting of member joined together with moment connections so as to render the frame stable with respect to design loads, without the need for bracing in its plane.

Roll-Up Door: A door that opens vertically and of which rolls up into itself above the door header.

Roof Covering: The exposed exterior roof surface consisting of metal panels. Can also be shingle roof, tile, or other finishing materials.

Roof Live Load: Loads that are produced a) by a person in the case of doing work or maintenance, equipment, and materials and b) during the life of the structure by movable items. Does not include wind, snow, seismic or dead loads.

Roof Overhang: A roof extension beyond the end wall or sidewall of a building that protrude past the walls of the building.

Roof Slope: Angle of the roof usually expressed in units of vertical rise to 12 units of horizontal run (i.e. 4:12 pitch).

Roof Snow Load: The load induced by the weight of snow on the roof of the structure.

Screw Down Roof System: A roof system in which the roof panels are fastened to the roof substructure with screws that penetrate through the roof sheets and into the substructure.

Sealant: Material that is used to seal, fill cracks, and bond joints.

Secondary Framing: Members that carry loads from the building surface to the main framing. For example purlins and girts. Secondary framing is the support and attachment for the roofing and siding material.

Seismic Load: The lateral loading acting in any direction on a structural system due to the action of an earthquake. Common in high seismic activity areas such as California.

Self-Drilling Screw: A fastener that combines the function of drilling and tapping.

Self-Tapping Screw: A fastener that taps its own threads in a predrilled hole.

Sidewall: An exterior wall, which is perpendicular to the frames of a building system.

Sill Plate: The bottom horizontal framing member of a wall opening, door, or such as a window or louver.

Single Slope: A sloping roof in one plane. Mono slope. The slope is from one sidewall to the opposite sidewall.

Sliding Door (Barn door): A single or double leaf door, which opens horizontally by means of sliding on an overhead roller system. Can be a single slider or double slider.

Snow Load: See “Roof Snow Load”.

Soffit: The material used which covers the underside of an overhang. Can be made of different types of materials.

Span: The distance between two supports and/or the distance from one side of the building to the other (generally describing the width / gable end of the building – i.e. the “width” of the truss).

Spreader Bar: Elongated bar with attached hooks and/or chains used from a crane to lift long sections of panels, or structural members such as rafters.

Standing Seam Roofing: Side joints of roof panels that are arranged in a vertical position above the roofline.

Steel Building: A building that uses steel as its mainframe support members. Commonly confused with a building that uses steel as an outside covering for the roof and wall (i.e. Wood truss and wood pole construction that is cladded in steel).

Stiffener: A member used to strengthen.

Stitch Screw: Fasteners connecting panels together at the side lap of which generally do not fasten back into any structure of the actual building members. Panels are sticking themselves together. Generally used in I-beam, Rigid frame steel type construction.

Stud: A vertical wall member to which exterior or interior covering or collateral material may be attached. May be either load bearing or non-load bearing. Connects from truss to truss.

Tapered Legs / Columns: Generally a standard set up. Starts narrower at the base and increases in size as it goes up towards the top.

Temporary Bracing: Materials used by erectors to stabilize the building system during erection, also typically referred to as temporary bracing.

Tensile Strength: The longitudinal pulling stress a material can bear without tearing apart.

Thermal Break: A spacer of low thermal conductance material that is installed between the purlin and roof insulation, to prevent energy loss.

Trim: The light gauge metal used in the finish of a steel building, especially around openings and at intersections of surfaces. Sometimes referred to as flashing. In the case of wood or vinyl this material would be used accordingly.

Truss: Member designed to carry a load.

Uplift: Wind load on a building, which causes a load in the upward direction. “Umbrella effect.”

Vapor Barrier: Material used to retard the flow of vapor or moisture to prevent condensation from forming on a surface.

Wainscot: Wall material, used in the lower portion of the wall that is different color or material to differentiate a trimmed look from the rest of the upper wall material.

Walk Door: Man door, Service door, Personnel door, People door. Generally a 3’0” x 7’0” size, but can be larger as in the case of French Doors.

Wall Covering: The exterior wall surface – commonly consisting of steel panels. Can be wood, brick, vinyl, or any other type of exterior “cladding.”

Webbing: The structural portion of the truss that resides in between the top and bottom cords. This forms triangle shapes and is the bases for the strength in the web truss design.

Width: The dimension of the building measured across the gable end of the building, (i.e. not generally used to describe the ease side of the building).

X-Bracing: Bracing system with members arranged diagonally in both directions to form an “X.” This helps support lateral loads.